Friday, March 13, 2009
Here is the fallacy list so you can study:
A. Inappropriate appeal to authority
B. Appeal to Ignorance
C. False alternatives
D. Loaded questions
E. Questionable Cause
F. Hasty Generalization
G. Slippery Slope
H. Weak analogy
J. Personal attack (ad hominem)
K. Attacking the motive
L. Look who's talking
M. Two Wrongs make a right
N. Scare tactics
O. Appeal to Pity
Q. Straw man
R. Red herring
T. Begging the question
U. Denying the antecedent
V. Affirming the consequent
W. NO fallacy
Tuesday, March 10, 2009
This test will cover the material in chapters 5 and 6: fallacies of relevance, and fallacies of insufficient evidence.
I will expect you to be able to identify all 11 fallacies of relevance, and all 9 fallacies of insufficient evidence. While you will not have to recite the list of 20 names, you will need to be able to label various texts that commit these fallacies, when given the list to choose from.
1) Be sure to check out the online study resources at
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072879599/student_view0/index.html. Notice the drop down menu on the left. Click on chapter 5 and then on chapter 6. Do the T/F and multiple choice quizzes for both chapters.
2) Do the exercises in the book. Remember that the answers for all exercises are on reserve in the library. The key to success is practice. The more exercises you do, the more practice you will have.
3) e-mail or call me if you have questions.
Monday, March 09, 2009
Paul’s Argument in Romans 3
3 What advantage, then, is there in being a Jew, or what value is there in circumcision? 2 Much in every way! First of all, they have been entrusted with the very words of God.
3 What if some did not have faith? Will their lack of faith nullify God’s faithfulness? 4 Not at all! Let God be true, and every man a liar. As it is written:
“So that you may be proved right when you speak
and prevail when you judge.”
5 But if our unrighteousness brings out God’s righteousness more clearly, [then]what shall we say? That God is unjust in bringing his wrath on us? (I am using a human argument.) 6 Certainly not! If that were so, how could God judge the world? 7 Someone might argue, “If my falsehood enhances God’s truthfulness and so increases his glory, why am I still condemned as a sinner?” 8 Why not say—as we are being slanderously reported as saying and as some claim that we say—“Let us do evil that good may result”? Their condemnation is deserved.
No One Is Righteous
9 What shall we conclude then? Are we any better? Not at all! We have already made the charge that Jews and Gentiles alike are all under sin. 10 As it is written:
“There is no one righteous, not even one;
11 there is no one who understands,
no one who seeks God.
12 All have turned away,
they have together become worthless;
there is no one who does good,
not even one.”
13 “Their throats are open graves;
their tongues practice deceit.”
“The poison of vipers is on their lips.”
14 “Their mouths are full of cursing and
15 “Their feet are swift to shed blood;
16 ruin and misery mark their ways,
17 and the way of peace they do not know.”
18 “There is no fear of God before their
19 Now we know that whatever the law says, it says to those who are under the law, so that every mouth may be silenced and the whole world held accountable to God. 20 Therefore no one will be declared righteous in his sight by observing the law; rather, through the law we become conscious of sin.
Tuesday, March 03, 2009
Monday, February 23, 2009
The test on Thursday, Feb. 26 will cover Chapter 4, "Language." Be sure you can:
Define each term and identify instances of them:
Definition by genus and difference
Definition by subclass
Know the various types and strategies for defining a term.
Know the Rules for Constructing Good Lexical Definitions, ( p. 104-106) and be able to tell when a given definition is too broad, too narrow, lacking in context, figurative, slanted, obscure or circular (see exercise VI., p.111)
Know the tests for emotive language.
As aways, it is wise for you to do the online TF and multiple choice quizzes and the online tutorials, as well as as many exercises in your textbook as you can. Depending on the quality of your work, I may be taking some examples from the student homework for Tuesday, Feb. 24.
Watch this video and see if you can find any arguments. Also, after we do chapter 4, come back to it and see how he uses language.
The Cruise Indoctrination Video Scientology Tried To Suppress
"You have to watch this video. It shows Tom Cruise, with all the wide-eyed fervor that he brings to the promotion of a movie, making the argument for Scientology, the bizarre 20th-century religion. Making the argument is an understatement. The Hollywood actor, star of movies such as Mission Impossible, is a complete fanatic. "When you're a Scientologist, and you drive by an accident, you know you have to do something about it, because you know you're the only one who can really help... We are the way to happiness. We can bring peace and unite cultures." There's much much more. Let me put it this way: if Tom Cruise jumping on Oprah's couch was an 8 on the scale of scary, this is a 10."
B+ = 3
B = 3
B- = 2
C+ = 2
C = 4
C- = 1
D+ = 1
D - = 2
F = 4
Though we did not have any A's, we had fewer D's and F's.
Plus, we did have some dramatic turnarounds from the last test:
a C to a B+
an F to a D+
a D to a B+
a D- to a B
an F to a C-
a D to a C
Keep up the good work!
Thursday, February 12, 2009
1) strong inductive argument
2) recognize indicator words and phrases for inductive arguments
Monday, February 02, 2009
A- = 4
B- = 1
C+ = 1
C = 2
C- = 2
D = 4
D- = 2
F = 8
Again, I strongly urge anyone who has made a D or below to see me, and to talk with your advisor.
The study group that Adele has organized seems to have helped people. If you are having trouble, consider joining it.
Be sure you read the chapter. The online material makes sense only if you have this framework. Six of those making D and below did not even read the chapter. Three did not do any of the things I've suggested--outlining, doing exercises, reading the blog, doing the online quizzes.
Remember, 25% of your grade is attendance and participation. Though it is not nothing, simply showing up doesn't count for much. Participation requires effort!
Thursday, January 22, 2009
We will be having our second test on Tuesday, Jan 27. It will cover most of Chapter 3.
1) do exercises in the book. I strongly suggest Exercises 3. 2, 3.3, and 3.5.
2) do the website T/F quiz and the multiple choice quiz.
3) make sure you know the stuff relating to deduction on the website chapter outline.
4) While we are emphazising deductive arguments, be sure you are able to distinguish deductive from an inductive arguments, and understand the concepts of validity and soundness. Be able to list and identify the 5 common patterns of deductive reasoning.
5) review the handouts.
Be familiar with these concepts and able to identify and use them:
- strict necessity
- logical impossibility
- physical impossibility
- affirming the antecendent (modus ponens)
- denying the consequent (modus tolens)
- conditional (hypothetical) statement;
- hypothetical syllogism
- categorical syllogism
- argument by elimination
- argument based on mathematics
- argument from definition
- valid argument
- invalid argument
- sound argument
- unsound argument
- chain argument
Be able to
1) identify the key differences between deductive and inductive arguments (cf. p.58)
2) tell whether an argument is deductive or inductive, by means of indicator word test, strict necessity test, and the common pattern test.
3) list the common deductive indicator words;
4) list the common inductive indicator words
5) Identify the five common patterns of deductive reasoning
6) identify arguments that are valid and that are invalid
7) identify arguments that are sound and that are unsound
For this test, YOU DON'T NEED TO MEMORIZE THE SIX COMMON PATTERNS OF INDUCTIVE REASONING...we'll do that in our next unit. You DO need to know how to tell the difference between a deductive and an inductive argument; but at this point, you can figure that anything I give you that doesn't fit one of the deductive forms will be inductive.
The test will have the following sections:
1. Ten T/F questions, worth 2 points each (total 20 points)
2. Twenty multiple choice questions, worth 2 points each (total 40 points)
3. Ten "Identify Arguments as valid or invalid" questions, worth 2 points each (total 20 points)
4. Ten "Determine whether the argument is Sound or Unsound" questions, worth 2 points each, (total 20 points)
Monday, January 19, 2009
Again, I strongly urge anyone who has made a D or below to see me, and to talk with your advisor. I must know immediately if you have any identified learning disabilities, so that I can work with your advisor to best understand how to help you.
If you are having problems, you need to be sure you are doing your exercises, checking them and availing yourself of the study helps online. Remember when you read the textbook, don't underline; outline! The extra time it takes pays back in the end.
Many students also find that having a "study buddy" helps improve their accountability, and, as a result, their comprehension of the material.
If you are doing all these things and still are having problems, you MUST see me as soon as possible, or else you will not be able to pass the course.
A = 1
B+ = 1
B- = 1
C- = 1
D+ = 1
D = 2
D- = 2
F = 8
Friday, January 09, 2009
We will be having Test #1 on Thursday Jan. 15. It will cover all of chapters 1-2.
My tests will almost always have two parts: the first part will be T/F (usually 10 questions worth 2 points each) and the second part will be multiple choice (usually 20 questions worth 4 points each.) Questions will be taken from the textbook website T/F and multiple choice quizzes; from the chapter exercises in the textbook, and a few new ones that I make up.
As always, do the TF and Multiple choice quizzes and the PPT tutorial on the textbook website. Do as many of the exercises in the textbook as you need in order to master the material, and then check your work against the answer key, which is on library reserve. Review the handouts. Review the chapter summaries.
Remember, this is a SKILLS class; so PRACTICE makes perfect!
Be able to define or identify these terms and use them :
Argument A claim defended with reasons.
Conclusion indicators (be able to list at least four or five)
Premise indicator (be able to list four or five)
Principle of charity
Also, be able to:
1) State the standards for clear thinking
2) State the barriers to critical thinking
3) Pick out statements/propositions from other kinds of sentences.
4) Identify ought-imperatives as opposed to regular imperatives; and identify rhetorical questions as opposed to regular questions.
5) Know when an imperative sentence is a statement and when it is not.
6) Identify the premises of any given argument
7) Identify the conclusion of any given argument
8) Be able to identify the antecedent and the consequent in a given conditional statement.
9) Be able to state whether a given piece of text is an illustration, or an explanation, or an argument